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Chicago Manual of Style

What is Chicago Manual of Style?

Chicago Manual of Style is the preferred documentation style of history and other humanities. Chicago style uses notes or endnotes for in-text referencing and a bibliography at the end to indicate those sources that were referenced in the text.

Formatting Your Paper in Chicago Style

For Chicago Style publication, pay close attention to the formatting guidelines. All papers should be double-spaced and should have margins of at least one inch on both sides and at the top and bottom of every page. All pages should be numbered except preliminary pages, including pages of notes and works cited pages. The page number should be placed at the top of the page either in the center or justified to the right margin.

Other Formatting Concerns

Long quotations should be set off from the regular text. Quotes of poetry of three or more lines and prose quotations of two or more sentences or eight or more lines should be set off. The quotations should be indented four spaces from the left margin. Single-space the quotation but double-space above and below the quotation. When you set off a quotation from the text, do not use quotation marks.


Chicago Style uses endnote and footnotes to document sources as well as an optional works cited page. Footnote and endnotes should be marked using consecutive superscript numerals in the text. Numbering should be used for publication information or for additional explanation or notes that would interrupt the fluidity of the text if inserted.

Notes should be listed at the bottom of the page if footnoted and at the end of the paper if endnoted.
Notes should be single-spaced within the same note and double-spaced between individual notes.
Begin the note with the author's first and last name; then list the title; and then give the publishing information and page numbers. [e.g. Peter Holman, The History of the Raj: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (New York: Dorset Press, 1996), 18.]

There are some differences in the formatting of the bibliographic references and the notes. The notes have authors' names in the order of first name followed by last name while the bibliography will invert the author's name. Please see below for examples of bibliographic references.

The bibliography page should be entitled "Bibliography," "Selected Bibliography," "Works Cited," or "References."
Start the bibliographic entry flush with the left margin, and indent all the other lines in the entry. The entire bibliographic references page should be double-spaced.

Titles of books and periodicals should be italicized; quotation marks should be used for parts of books or articles in periodicals, and the publisher information should not be abbreviated.

A Work with One Author


1. George Abbot, Israel in Europe (New York: Humanities Press, 1972), 18.


Abbot, George. Israel in Europe. New York: Humanities Press, 1972.

A Book with an Editor


2.Anthony B. Tortelli, ed., Sociology Approaching the Twenty-first Century (Los Angeles: Peter and Sons,

1991), 12.


Tortelli, Anthony B., ed. Sociology Approaching the Twenty-first Century. Los Angeles: Peter and Sons, 1991.

A Work with Two or Three Authors


3. A.Y. Yodfat and Y. Arnon-Channa, P.L.O. Strategy and Tactics (London: Croom Helm, 1981), 45.


Yodfat, A.Y., and Y. Arnon-Channa. P.L.O. Strategy and Tactics. London: Croom Helm, 1981.

Personal Online Site


4. Joseph Pellegrino, "Homepage," 12 May 1999, <http://www.english.eku.edu/pellegrino/default.htm>


Pellegrino, Joseph. "Homepage." 12 May 1999.<http://www.english.eku.edu/pellegrino/default.htm>

**Information for this page was taken from the following sources:

1. UNLV Library Handout on Chicago Manual Style

2. Muriel Harris' Prentice Hall Reference Guide to Grammar and Usage, 5th ed.

3. H. Ramsey Fowler, ed.,The Little Brown Handbook, 7th ed.

This page was written by AmiJo Comeford

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Thursday, 07-Jun-2012 10:51:55 PDT
Thursday, 07-Jun-2012 10:51:55 PDT